Dr Wendy Sims-Schouten will provide an overview of practices and conditions of children cared for by the Waifs and Strays Society in the UK from its inception in 1881 till 1920, as well as providing examples of children who were sent to Canada during this time. Wendy will specifically focus on correspondence, interventions and practices with a focus on mental health and wellbeing, and support this with examples from the relevant case files. Wendy will also give tips and advice on how to access the records.
Benjamin Franklin (1789) is reputed to have said that the only things certain in this world are death and taxes, however, bereavement and death remain elusive, if not taboo, subjects of conversation. Arguably in the 21st century within the United Kingdom (U.K.), against a backdrop of rising mental health difficulties, adults aim to shelter children and young people from topics that might cause stress, anxiety, or upset in a process that Pilcher (1995) calls ‘separateness’, a differentiation between childhood and adulthood. Thus, death is not talked about in a proactive manner but dealt with as a reactive response. Frequently, when a young person experiences loss, the first source approached is the internet.
Whilst the internet is an easy tool to utilise, it is also laden with outdated material which could be potentially counterproductive and even harmful to the young person’s grief process. Moreover, most bereavement support models tend to be adult directed interventions that are ‘top down’, and which contravene article 12 of the rights of the child enshrined in The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) (1989), which advocates that children have the right to express opinions about matters which affect them.
Bereavement affects all areas of a young person’s life and can increase feelings of loneliness and isolation. However, the quality of support available to them is dependent on the skillset, and value placed by, the person the information is shared with because bereavement policies and procedures are not in place. Generally, there tends to be emotional literacy sessions which teach responsibility for correcting inappropriate behaviour rather than programmes which allow exploration and understanding of all emotions, including grief.
Grieving needs to be acknowledged as a process that is a natural response to death. So how do professionals working with children and young people move beyond this taboo and build a compassionate environment that allows for natural responses to death, that of grief and mourning, to take place without being pathologized? Open dialogue about death and bereavement would break down some of the stigma, however as Bochner (2000) notes that “personal narratives are demeaned as some sort of victim art or confessional” (p. 271).
Being ‘allowed’ and given space to talk about grief and personal stories of loss can be utilised as a powerful mechanism for sensemaking, development of voice and to a certain extent, ownership of the process of grief, a point echoed by Giorgio (2009), who stresses that retelling the story enables some sense of order onto “the mess of trauma; we regain control over our lives by acknowledging and sharing with others our own truths” (p. 157). Opening up dialogue on death allows for it to be taken out of the realms of taboo subject and to be thought of as a normal occurrence that is part of the life cycle of humans which in turn will lead to a clearer path to support for both individuals and professionals.
Blog post written by Dr Sukh Hamilton, Senior Lecturer in Childhood within the School of Education and Sociology (EDSOC), University of Portsmouth.
Bochner, A., P. (2000). ‘Criteria against Ourselves’. Qualitative Inquiry, 6(2), pp. 266-272
Giorgio, G. (2009). ‘Traumatic Truths and the Gift of Telling’. Qualitative Inquiry, 15(1) pp.149-167
Pilcher, J. (1995). ‘Growing Up and Growing Older: The Sociology of Age.’ Sociology Review 5. pp 8-13.
UNHCR. ‘The Rights of the Child.’ (1989). Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org.uk/UNICEFs-Work/UN-Convention/
With the start of the new academic year it has become clear that expectations and demands placed on schools in terms of mental health support have increased. More responsibility is being placed on schools to deal with mental health issues faced by their pupils. This has been justified by claims that mental health training for teachers will be provided but as demonstrated by the headteachers march on Friday 28th September 2018, schools are struggling enough already to provide the resources their children and staff need.
Mental Health First Aid Training
Many are praising the provision of Mental health first aid training in schools but is this really an appropriate solution? Placing more responsibility on schools due to a lack of resources in the NHS when schools are already facing a fall in their own resources doesn’t bode well the for future of our children. Dr Wendy Sim’s Schouten’s Conversation article discusses the implications that this might have long-term.
A GCSE in Wellbeing
The impact that this has on teachers and their own mental health is apparent. Teachers have more than enough to cope with already with increased demands placed upon them and many teachers report working in excess of fifty hours per week. So, placing the responsibility of pupils’ mental health on them in addition and justifying this by saying they have been provided training is perhaps a burden they shouldn’t have to bear.
Teachers’ mental health is paramount. If they do not have good mental health themselves this will reflect on their pupils. Many teachers have expressed concern that by not looking after their own mental health, they are putting their pupils’ progress at risk, with many claiming,
“I just want to get through the day,”
And others stating that they find it difficult to care as much when they are feeling depressed themselves or that the impact this has on their concentration and fatigue affects their teaching. #perhaps to support the mental health of pupils’ it is time for teachers to lead by example and attend wellbeing workshops to then provide a GCSE in Wellbeing.
Kids in Crisis
On Monday 24th September BBC One Panorama aired ‘Kids in Crisis’ which looked at the harsh reality of the mental health system in Britain today and the impact that long waits and high thresholds have on our children with some parents being told their child would have to attempt suicide before they would be seen. This is not in line with the ‘prevention and early intervention’ policy we have been led to believe as touted in the governments February 2018 paper, Looking to the Future – Improving Mental Health Outcomes for Children and Young People.
For the Future
The Mental Health First Aid England’s Supporting Organisation is Family Links, who strive to achieve mental and emotional wellbeing of families through the provision of support programmes for parents, children and schools. They strive for a family life utopia of balance between everyone who is involved with family life. Through the provision of education and training it is hope that this can be achieved. However, the key message here is to look at the provision and utilisation of resources. With troubling times ahead. Perhaps the government needs a new strategy.
Blog post written by Kayleigh Rivett, Support Officer (Themes) for the Research and Innovation Services at the University of Portsmouth (@uopresearch).